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Year Description

1860
Geisller developed vacuum tubes containing various gases and found that some gases become luminous when high voltage discharges are passed through the tube.

1869
Hittorf observed numerous properties of cathode rays (must have produced penetrating x-rays).

1869
Rontgen received the Ph.D. degree at the University of Zurich.

1873
Maxwell published his famous equations in the book Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.

1874
Stoney announced the idea of atomistic electricity and gave its name to the electron.

1879
Crookes found that cathode rays can be deflected by a magnet and felt that he was dealing with a fourth state of matter.

1881
Riecke published a note on the path of an electrically charged particle of finite mass in a magnetic field.

1884
A Schuster formulated the general theory of discharge of electricity in gases.

1885
Hertz proved Maxwell's equations by experimental methods.

1886
Goldstein discovered positive canadal rays in the vacuum tube.

1888
Rontgen proved that a magnetic field is set up in a dielectric moving between electrically charged condensor plates - "the Roentgen current".

1890
Helmholtz foretold theoretically certain properties of electromagnetic oscillations of high frequencies.

1892
H. Hertz demonstrated the passage of cathode rays through thin metal foils.

1892
Lenard built improved cathode-ray tubes and made important observations on the properties of cathode rays.

1893
J.J. Thompson published a supplementary volume to Maxwell's Treatise, describing in detail the passage of electricity through gases.

1895
W.C. Rontgen discovered x-rays with a Hittorf-Crookes vacuum tube.

1896
O.T. Lindenthal made the first contrast x-ray picture of a hand into the veins of which Teichmann's mixture had been injected.

1896
A.W. Wright made the first photographic paper roentgenogram.

1896
J. Carbutt and A.W. Goodspeed worked on the first special x-ray photographic plate.

1896
E.A. Woodward built the first metal x-ray tube.

1896
M.I. Pupin discovered the intensifying screen method.

1896
Rontgen, Campbell-Swinton, O.B. Shallenberger, H. Jackson, and others presented the first metal-target x-ray tubes.

1896
J. Trowbridge built the first oil-immersed x-ray tube.

1896
L. Fomm, E. Mach, and E. Thomson developed the use of stereoscopic methods in roentgenography.

1896
W. Konig and W.J. Morton made the first dental radiographs.

1896
The first roentgen-ray journal, Archives of Clinical Skiagraphy, was published in Great Britain.

1896
First use of roentgen rays in war, Italian-Ethiopian campaign.

1896
J.M. Bleyer, A. Batteli, J. McIntyre were the first to use a "photofluoroscope".

1896
J. Perrin measured by means of an air condensor the loss of electrical charge caused by the ionization produced by x-rays.

1896
A.H. Becquerel presented to the Paris Academy of Sciences the results of his discovery of radioactive radiations emitted by uranium compounds.

1897
J.J. Thomson discovered that cathode rays are made up of discrete particles of negative electricity or electrons, considerably smaller than atoms.

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